Burns

Burns 150 150 Tony Guo

Burns

  • Occur when there is injury to tissues of body caused by heat, chemicals, electrical current, or radiation
  • Should be viewed as preventable

Types of burn injury

  • Thermal burns
    • Caused by lame, lash, scald, or contact with hot objects
  • Chemical burns
    • Contact with acids, alkalis, and organic compounds
    • Alkali burns (from cement, oven and drain cleaners, and heavy industrial cleansers) can be more difficult to manage than acid burns (from hydrochloric, oxalic, and hydrofluoric acid), since alkalis adhere to tissue, causing protein hydrolysis and liquefaction.
  • Smoke inhalation injury
    • From breathing noxious chemicals or hot air can cause damage to the respiratory tract.
    • Three types of smoke and inhalation injuries can occur:
      • Metabolic asphyxiation
        • Inhaling certain smoke elements, primarily carbon monoxide (CO) or hydrogen cyanide
        • Increasing carboxyhemoglobin blood levels by 20% leading to death
      • Upper airway injury
        • Inhalation injury to the mouth, oropharynx, and/or larynx
      • Lower airway injury.
        • Injury to the trachea, bronchioles, and alveoli
  • Electrical burns
    • Intense heat generated from an electric current such that direct damage to nerves and vessels, causing tissue anoxia and death,
  • Cold thermal injury
    • Frostbite

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