Immunotherapy : Cancer
Immunotherapy : Cancer 150 150 Tony Guo

Immunotherapy Immunotherapy uses the immune system to fight cancer Some types called biologic therapy Boost or manipulate the immune system and create an environment not conducive for cancer cells to grow Attack cancer cells directly Target therapy Interferes with cancer growth by targeting specific cell receptors and pathways that are important in tumor growth Does…

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Nursing Implications : Cancer
Nursing Implications : Cancer 150 150 Tony Guo

Nursing Implications Bone marrow suppression Myelosuppression: most common side effect of chemotherapy Treatment-induced reductions in RBCs and WBCs can result in Infection Hemorrhage Overwhelming fatigue Fatigue Encourage conservation strategies Rest before activity Get assistance with activity Remain active during periods of time patients feel better Maintain nutritional and hydration status Assess for reversible causes of…

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Infiltrative Emergencies : Cancer
Infiltrative Emergencies : Cancer 150 150 Tony Guo

Infiltrative Emergencies Cardiac Tamponade Fluid accumulation in pericardium. Caused by constriction of pericardium by tumor or pericarditis secondary to radiation therapy to the chest Heavy feeling over chest, shortness of breath, tachycardia, cough, dysphagia, hiccups, hoarseness. Nausea, vomiting, excessive perspiration. Decreased level of consciousness, distant or muted heart sounds. Extreme anxiety. Decrease fluid around heart…

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Metabolic Emergencies : Cancer
Metabolic Emergencies : Cancer 150 150 Tony Guo

Metabolic Emergencies Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) Tumor cells can produce abnormal or sustained production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Many chemotherapy agents may also contribute to ectopic ADH production or potentiate ADH effects Water retention and hyponatremia (hypotonic hyponatremia). Weight gain without edema, weakness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, personality changes, seizures, oliguria, decrease in reflexes,…

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Obstructive Emergencies : Cancer
Obstructive Emergencies : Cancer 150 150 Tony Guo

Obstructive Emergencies Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS) Results from obstruction of superior vena cava by tumor or thrombosis. Common causes are lung cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and metastatic breast cancer. Presence of central venous catheter and previous mediastinal radiation increase risk of development. Facial edema, periorbital edema. Distention of veins of head, neck, and chest Headache,…

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Radiation therapy : Cancer
Radiation therapy : Cancer 150 150 Tony Guo

Radiation therapy One of the oldest nonsurgical methods of cancer treatment 50% of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment Radiation is emission of energy from a source and travels through space or some material Different types of ionizing radiation are used to treat cancer Technologic advances Low-energy beams…

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Gerontologic considerations : Catastrophic events in the OR
Gerontologic considerations : Catastrophic events in the OR 150 150 Tony Guo

Gerontologic considerations Anesthetic drugs should be carefully titrated Assess for poor communication Risk from tape, electrodes, and warming/cooling blankets Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis Perioperative hypothermia Catastrophic events in the OR Anaphylactic reactions Manifestation may be masked by anesthesia Vigilance and rapid intervention are essential Symptoms include hypotension, tachycardia, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema Malignant hyperthermia Rare metabolic disorder…

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Anesthesia 150 150 Tony Guo

Anesthesia Anesthetic technique and agents are selected by the ACP that consider Physical and mental status Age Allergy and pain history Expertise of the ACP Factors related to operative procedure Classification of anesthesia General anesthesia Rarely use only one agent Adjuncts Dissociative anesthesia Ketamine (Ketalar) Adjuncts to general anesthesia Opioids Sedation and analgesia Induction and…

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Nursing management : surgical site
Nursing management : surgical site 150 150 Tony Guo

Nursing management Admitting patient Reassessment Last-minute questions Review of chart Review labs Final questioning about valuables, prostheses, contacts, last intake of food/fluid Basic aseptic technique Center of sterile field is site of surgical incision Only sterilized items in sterile field Protective equipment Face shields, caps, gloves, aprons, and eyewear Preparing surgical site Scrub or clean…

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